The State of Bavaria
- The State of Bavaria
- 12.6 million (2011)
- €35,337 per capita (2010)
GHG emissions (year): 77.93 million tons CO2e (energy-related). For further info on economic and political context, see below.
The Free State of Bavaria, located in the South East of Germany, is the country’s largest state in terms of territory, and second-largest in terms of population. It is among the top business locations in Europe, with a per-capita GDP and employment rate well above the German average.
Over the past decades Bavaria has developed from an agricultural state into a major hub for industries in the automotive, finance and media sectors. 30% of its GDP is made up from high-tech manufacturing industries including ICT, life sciences and energy and environmental technologies. 69% of its GDP derives from the tertiary sector, with a major focus on financial and insurance services, trade and tourism.
With more than 3% of the state’s GDP going towards research and development (R&D) and backed-up by a strong innovation policy - including the systematic promotion of knowledge networks in the Bayern Innovativ cluster initiative - Bavaria is well-placed to take a lead role in the Clean Revolution.
The transportation and building sectors hold the majority share of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, with 37% and 35% respectively. The power sector accounts for 17%.
In the Bavarian Climate Programme 2020, the state has committed to reducing its carbon emissions to below six tons per person, and to doubling the share of renewable energy in primary energy consumption to 20% by 2020.
In 2010, Bavaria produced over half (51.1%) of its electricity from nuclear generation. In response to the Fukushima nuclear accident in 2011 and Germany's decision to phase out nuclear energy by 2022, Bavaria adopted a new energy strategy in May 2011 based on five key aims:
- Doubling the share of renewable energy in electricity consumption from 25% to 50%, and in primary energy consumption from 10% to 20% by 2021.
- Accelerating the expansion of the necessary energy infrastructure.
- Significant increase of energy savings in the building sector, industry and trade.
- Expansion of natural gas infrastructures for an additional potential of about 4,000 megawatts.
- Promotion of R&D in new energy technologies, particularly storage technologies.
The Government has established a new Bavarian Energy Agency that will provide energy consulting services, and accelerate planning and permit processes for renewables, as well as a 'Bavaria energy efficiency pact' between business, industry associations and civil society groups.
The Bavarian Climate Programme 2020 has identified building efficiency as a major priority in energy savings. The state Government supports the program for energy efficient construction and the refurbishment of existing buildings of the Federal promotional bank KfW Group, and has set aside €150 million to improve the energy efficiency of its own building stock.
The refurbishment of public and ‘social infrastructure’ buildings is supported within the Federal State-Municipal investment pact, with the Bavarian Government covering a third of the cost.
Energy efficiency is also highlighted in the Bavarian Energy Concept as a prerequisite for making the switch to the new energy mix. The Concept document highlights a commitment to reduce heat consumption in buildings by 20% and in industrial processes by 15% within the next ten years, support programs for energy efficient lighting and street lighting, further development of cogeneration installations and an awareness campaign among both public and industry.
The Bavarian Energy Concept foresees doubling the share of renewable energy in electricity consumption from 25% to 50% and in primary energy consumption from 10% to 20% by 2021. This major increase shall be achieved particularly through the expansion of hydropower and wind energy; construction of additional pumped-storage power stations and R&D in storage technologies and expansion of combined heat and power.
The Bavarian Climate Programme 2020 foresees a strong promotion of energy efficient mobility options such as trains, buses, and cycling, as well as walking – given appropriate planning measures. The Federal State supports a dense and well-functioning transport system with €1.25 billion per year.
Fifteen new traffic management systems are planned, predominantly in conglomerations, as well as the provision of additional large-scale variable traffic guidance systems extending across the borders to other federal states and countries.
Additionally, the Bavarian Government is intensifying the dialogue with the automobile industry and its suppliers to put stronger emphasis on climate issues, for example, reduction of CO2 emissions of cars and environmental protection.
The state plans to invest €64 million to research electro-mobility, with a strong collaboration with the automotive industry in order to bring 200,000 electric cars onto Bavarian roads by 2020.
The Munich region is one of eight German EV model regions promoted by the national government.
Sustainable land use
Bavaria has the largest proportion of woodland in Germany, with about a third of the state covered by forests.
A €22.5 million investment has been made by the EU to transform the region’s vulnerable coniferous forests into more tolerant mixed species forests. Mountain forests are also being reconstructed and maintained.
In agriculture, initiatives are being supported to augment energy-efficiency and reduce GHG emissions. Especially promoted are the expansion of extensive organic farming and the reduction of nitrogen fertilizers.
Bavaria recycles over 71% of domestic waste. Three million tons of waste are used for heating fuel, saving 13 million tons of carbon emissions in unburned fossil fuel. This corresponds to a reduction of about one ton of carbon per person per year. Tests are taken of waste, ground, water and air samples to monitor the health of the environment.
The Bavarian research and development support has a strong focus on smart grids and intelligent buildings.
Devolved powers and competencies relevant to climate and energy
Bavarian State Ministry of the Environment and Public Health, Bavarian State Ministry of Economic Affairs, Infrastructure, Transport and Technology.
Most important economic sectors
(Relating to employment:) machinery and equipment, motor vehicles, trailer and semi-trailer, food products, electrical equipment, fabricated metal products, computers, and electronic and optical products.
GHG breakdown by sector (%) (CO2 energy related, 2004):
|Power (heat and electricity)||31%|
|Buildings (buildings, service, trade and business)||35%|
Current power sector mix (%) (production of electricity, 2010):