The State of Bavaria

Population: 12.6 million (2011)

GDP: EUR35,337 per capita (2010)

Country: Germany

Total GHG emissions (year): 76.5 million tons CO2e (energy-related; 2013)

GHG emissions/capita/year: 6.2

Climate protection is a way of conserving resources. The State of Bavaria pursues a far-sighted, sustainable, and coherent climate protection policy in accordance with the insight that dangerous climate changes can only be counteracted by a united front composed of the business community, policy-makers, and society at large. Natural resources of all kinds are of pronounced importance to Bavaria’s economy and for its quality of life, from sources of energy such as the sun or the wind, to elements such as the soil and water, and biological resources including bio-diversity and cultivable land.

The Bavaria 2020 climate protection strategy is based on three key pillars: further reducing greenhouse gas emissions, adapting to the unavoidable consequences of climate change, and supporting these two goals through research and development in order to create a solid basis of data for further strategic deci­sion-making.

Climate change is a global problem with a regional impact. With its delicate Alpine region, Bavaria will be affected more than most: in recent decades, the median annual tempera­ture in the Alps has gone up twice as much as the global average. Besides the glacial melt already visible today, the rise in temperatures will lead to reduced replenishment of ground­water, with decreased precipitation in summer and increased precipitation in winter.

In this regard, climate change is already modifying our surroundings to a considerable degree, with both positive and negative consequences for long-term business planning and commercial decision-making. Companies in sectors such as transport, energy, and tourism are all affected, and they can prepare themselves for future risks all the better by developing strate­gies and technologies for dealing with the unavoidable results of climate change.

Climate adaptation processes are preventive measures which reduce the vulnerability of the environ­ment and human society and which could become the driver behind sustainable manage­ment and, in this respect, climate protection sets important signals for investors in the direction of innovation and technological progress.

  • Key Targets / Successes

    Climate policy and GHG emissions reduction targets:

    Bavaria has underlined its goal of bringing per-capita CO2 emissions from energy genera­tion markedly under the threshold of six tons annually by 2020 and under two tons annually by 2050.

    The Bavarian Energy Concept foresees doubling the share of renewable energy in electricity consumption from 25% to 50% and in primary energy consumption from 10% to 20% by 2021.

    Most innovative climate actions and emissions reduction successes: 

    Between 2008 and 2011 alone, Bavaria invested three quarters of a billion Euros in climate protection within the scope of the Bavarian Climate Program 2020, putting it ahead of all other German federal states. In the medium term through to 2016, the state is plan­ning to invest another billion Euros in climate, energy, and innovation initiatives: in the two-year budget for 2013-2014, Bavaria has already made 260 million Euros available for green energy transition and climate protection projects, with a clear focus on providing funds for research and technology development, as well as for converting knowledge and technology into practical applications.

    The measures taken in Bavarian climate policy are having an effect: since the end of the 1990s, CO2 emissions from energy generation have fallen by more than 10 million tons to around 76 million.

    With a new ‘Climate Protection Program 2050’ Bavaria seeks a long-term cooperation between economy, municipalities and state government. Based on the Bavarian Adaptation Strategy further measures of adaptation will be developed and elaborated down to the municipality level.

  • Current activities

    Flagship initiative

    Bavarian Climate Alliance

    Climate protection is a matter for society at large and plays an important part in all sectors, from energy supply and industry through to commerce, agriculture, transport and individual households. Protecting our climate is a task which requires cooperation from all sections of society, and that is why in 2004 the Bavarian State Government, together with the Bavarian Conservation League (Bund Naturschutz), set up the Bavarian Climate Alliance to allow strong multipliers room to inform and act in such a way as to raise awareness for climate protection in society as a whole. Members of the Bavarian Climate Alliance Each of the members of the Alliance signs up to a joint declaration of cooperation in climate protection and consults with the State Government on the contents of its declaration. The Bavarian Climate Alliance has now grown to include 30 parties, proving itself as the cooperative platform for the State Government and non-governmental entities.

    Renewable Energy:

    The Bavarian Energy Concept foresees doubling the share of renewable energy in electricity consumption from 25% to 50% and in primary energy consumption from 10% to 20% by 2021. This major increase shall be achieved particularly through the expansion of hydropower and wind energy; construction of additional pumped-storage power stations and R&D in storage technologies and expansion of combined heat and power. 

    Energy efficiency:

    The Bavarian Climate Program 2020 has identified building efficiency as a major priority in energy savings. The state Government supports the program for energy efficient construction and the refurbishment of existing buildings of the Federal promotional bank KfW Group, and has set aside 150 million Euros to improve the energy efficiency of its own building stock. 

    The refurbishment of public and ‘social infrastructure’ buildings is supported within the Federal State-Municipal investment pact, with the Bavarian Government covering a third of the cost. 

    Energy efficiency is also highlighted in the Bavarian Energy Concept as a prerequisite for making the switch to the new energy mix. The Concept document highlights a commitment to reduce heat consumption in buildings by 20% and in industrial processes by 15% within the next ten years, support programs for energy efficient lighting and street lighting, further develop cogeneration installations and an awareness campaign among both public and industry.

    Clean transportation:

    The Bavarian Climate Program 2020 foresees a strong promotion of energy efficient mobility options such as trains, buses, and cycling, as well as walking – given appropriate planning measures. The Federal State supports a dense and well-functioning transport system with 1.25 billion Euros per year.

    Fifteen new traffic management systems are planned, predominantly in conglomerations, as well as the provision of additional large-scale variable traffic guidance systems extending across the borders to other federal states and countries.

    Additionally, the Bavarian Government is intensifying the dialogue with the automobile industry and its suppliers to put stronger emphasis on climate issues, for example, reduction of CO2 emissions of cars and environmental protection.

    The state plans to invest 64 million Euros to research electro-mobility, with a strong collaboration with the automotive industry in order to bring 200,000 electric cars onto Bavarian roads by 2020. 

    The Munich region is one of eight German EV model regions promoted by the national government. 

    Urban environment/smart cities:

    The Bavarian research and development support has a strong focus on smart grids and intelligent buildings.

    Sustainable land use:

    Bavaria has the largest proportion of woodland in Germany, with about a third of the state covered by forests. 

    A 22.5 million Euros investment has been made by the EU to transform the region’s vulnerable coniferous forests into more tolerant mixed species forests. Mountain forests are also being reconstructed and maintained. 

    In agriculture, initiatives are being supported to augment energy-efficiency and reduce GHG emissions. Especially promoted are the expansion of extensive organic farming and the reduction of nitrogen fertilizers.


    Bavaria was quick to recognize that climate change cannot be effectively combatted by reducing greenhouse gas emissions alone, and this makes developing and implementing regional adaptation strategies across all sectors of society to deal with the unavoidable consequences of climate change as part of the national plan an important component of Bavarian climate policy. The Freestate therefore set up the Bavarian Adaptation Strategy (BayKLAS) already in 2009 with the focus on 15 fields of action. In 2015 the work on an updated BayKLAS will start. On the basis of a more detailed climate modelling and location-specific forecasts the aim is to support and encourage business and municipalities to make their own preparations for future changes.

  • More info

    Devolved powers and competencies relevant to climate and energy:

    Bavarian State Ministry of the Environment and Consumer Protection, Bavarian Ministry of Economic Affairs and Media, Energy and Technology.

    Most important economic sectors:

    Machinery and equipment, motor vehicles, trailer and semi-trailer, food products, electrical equipment, fabricated metal products, computers, and electronic and optical products.

    GHG breakdown by sector (%)













    Current power sector mix (%)

















    Year: 2011 (electricity)


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